Phase I trial of gemcitabine, doxorubicin and cisplatin (GAP) in patients with advanced solid tumors
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A phase I study was conducted to determine the recommended phase II dose, safety profile and anti-tumor activity of a combination regimen of gemcitabine, doxorubicin and cisplatin (GAP). Gemcitabine (G) and doxorubicin (A) were administered on days 1 and 8 at increasing doses (starting level 800 and 15 mg/m, respectively). Cisplatin (P) was given at a fixed dose of 50 mg/m2 (day 1). Treatment cycles were repeated every 3 weeks. Nineteen patients received 76 cycles of treatment. A and G were escalated up to 20 and 1000 mg/m2, and finally de-escalated to 15 and 800 mg/m2. The dose-limiting toxicity was neutropenic fever that was observed in 21% of the patients. Non-hematological toxicities included mild/moderate nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and fatigue, observed in 58, 37, 21 and 95% of the patients, respectively. Of 19 patients with evaluable disease, six patients had a partial response yielding an overall response rate of 31.6 % (95% confidence interval 12.6-56.6%) by intention-to-treat. We conclude that GAP is an active and tolerable treatment combination, with minimal visceral organ toxicities.
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