Redox-Gated Three-Terminal Organic Memory Devices: Effect of Composition and Environment on Performance
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The performance of redox-gated organic nonvolatile memory (NVM) based on conducting polymers was investigated by altering the polymer structure, composition, and local environment of three-terminal devices with a field-effect transistor (FET) geometry. The memory function was dependent on the presence of a redox active polymer with high conducting and low conducting states, the presence of a redox counter-reaction, and the ability to transport ions between the polymer and electrolyte phases. Simultaneous monitoring of both the "write" current and "readout" current revealed the switching dynamics of the devices and their dependence on the local atmosphere. Much faster and more durable response was observed in acetonitrile vapor than in a vacuum, indicating the importance of polar molecules for both ion motion and promotion of electrochemical reactions. The major factor determining "write" and "erase" speeds of redox-gated polymer memory devices was determined to be the rate of ion transport through the electrolyte layer to provide charge compensation for the conducting polarons in the active polymer layer. The results both confirm the mechanism of redox-gated memory action and identify the requirements of the conducting polymer, redox counter reaction, and electrolyte for practical applications as alternative solid-state nonvolatile memory devices.
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