An experimental investigation was performed to determine the effect that surface roughness has on the heat transfer in an axial Taylor-Couette flow. The experiments were performed using an inner rotating cylinder in a stationary water jacket for Taylor numbers of 106 to 5×107 and axial Reynolds numbers of 900 to 2100. Experiments were performed for a smooth inner cylinder, a cylinder with two-dimensional rib roughness and a cylinder with three-dimensional cubic protrusions. The heat transfer results for the smooth cylinder were in good agreement with existing experimental data. The change in the Nusselt number was relatively independent of the axial Reynolds number for the cylinder with rib roughness. This result was similar to the smooth wall case but the heat transfer was enhanced by 5% to 40% over the Taylor number range. The Nusselt number for the cylinder with cubic protrusions exhibited an axial Reynolds number dependence. For a low axial Reynolds number of 980, the Nusselt number increased with the Taylor number in a similar way to the other test cylinders. At higher axial Reynolds numbers, the heat transfer was initially independent of the Taylor number before increasing with Taylor number similar to the lower Reynolds number case. In this higher axial Reynolds number case the heat transfer was enhanced by up to 100% at the lowest Taylor number of 1×106 and by approximately 35% at the highest Taylor number of 5×107.