Measurement of birefringence in thin-film waveguides by Rayleigh scattering
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A method of measuring birefringence in slab and ridge waveguides based on the coherent superposition of Rayleigh light scattering from TE and TM polarized modes is described and demonstrated in silica-on-silicon waveguides. A measurement accuracy of approximately 10(-6) has been achieved. This method is used to determine the evolution of waveguide birefringence with annealing temperature in phosphorous-doped glass waveguides. The measured birefringence increases rapidly with annealing temperatures up to 800 degrees C but remains unchanged for higher-temperature anneals. We interpret this threshold as the temperature above which glass can flow.
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