sixty-one new continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were allocated to a Y connector disinfectant (Amuchina, Italy) and 63 to standard systems (Baxter Systems II & III) in a randomized clinical trial addressing peritonitis rates in 8 CAPD programs in 6 Canadian cities. In the Y connector-disinfectant group, 15 patients experienced 21 episodes of peritonitis in 452 patient-months or 1 per 21.53 patient-months. In the standard systems group, 30 patients experienced 47 episodes of peritonitis in 467 patient-months or 1 per 9.93 patient-months ( p = 0.009). The peritonitis risk reduction was 61% (95% confidence limits 27–79%). Exit-site infections occurred in 36% of each group.
Prior to the development of exit -site infection, the monthly risk for peritonitis was 3.12% for the Y connector disinfectant system and 7.37% for the standard system. After an exit -site infection, these probabilities increased to 6.15% and 15.47%, respectively. Skin organisms were responsible for peritonitis in 8/21 (38%) in the Y connector-disinfectant group and 30/47 (64%) in the standard group. There were 75 days hospitalized for peritonitis in the Y connector-disinfectant group compared to 257 days for the standard group. The Y connector disinfectant system decreases the peritonitis rate through its effect on skin organisms. Exit -site infections are a major source of organisms responsible for peritonitis.