Multimode phase-matched third-harmonic generation in sub-micrometer-wide anatase TiO_2 waveguides
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Third-harmonic generation (THG) has applications ranging from wavelength conversion to pulse characterization, and has important implications for quantum sources of entangled photons. However, on-chip THG devices are nearly unexplored because bulk techniques are difficult to adapt to integrated photonic circuits. Using sub-micrometer-wide polycrystalline anatase TiO₂ waveguides, we demonstrate third-harmonic generation on a CMOS-compatible platform. We correlate higher conversion efficiencies with phase-matching between the fundamental pump mode and higher-order signal modes. Using scattered light, we estimate conversion efficiencies as high as 2.5% using femtosecond pulses, and thus demonstrate that multimode TiO₂ waveguides are promising for wideband wavelength conversion and new applications ranging from sensors to triplet-photon sources.
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