The Canadian Study of Health and Aging*: Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease in Canada Academic Article uri icon

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abstract

  • OBJECTIVE: To study risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. DESIGN: Population-based case-control study. SETTING: Communities and institutions in 10 Canadian provinces. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-eight cases clinically diagnosed with probable AD, with onset of symptoms within 3 years of diagnosis, and 535 controls, frequency matched on age group, study center, and residence in community or institution, clinically confirmed to be cognitively normal. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression for previously hypothesized and potential risk factors for AD. RESULTS: The OR for family history of dementia was significantly elevated (2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53 to 4.51) and increased with the number of relatives with dementia. Those with less education were at higher risk of AD, with an OR of 4.00 (95% CI, 2.49 to 6.43) for those with 0 to 6 years, in comparison with those with 10 or more years. Head injury achieved borderline significance. A history of arthritis resulted in a low risk of AD (OR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.81), as did a history of use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Initial analyses showed an increased risk of AD for occupational exposure to glues as well as to pesticides and fertilizers; the increased risk was greater in those with less education. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed a number of previously reported risk factors for AD, but provided little support for others. A new finding was an increased risk for those with occupational exposure to glues as well as pesticides and fertilizers, but this needs further study.

authors

  • MCDOWELL, I
  • HILL, G
  • LINDSAY, J
  • HELLIWELL, B
  • COSTA, L
  • BEATTIE, L
  • HERTZMAN, C
  • TUOKKO, H
  • GUTMAN, G
  • PARHAD, I
  • PARBOOSINGH, J
  • BLAND, R
  • NEWMAN, S
  • DOBBS, A
  • HAZLETT, C
  • RULE, B
  • DARCY, C
  • SEGALL, A
  • CHAPPELL, N
  • MANFREDA, J
  • MONTGOMERY, P
  • OSTBYE, T
  • ROBERTSON, J
  • HACHINSKI, V
  • Chambers, Larry William
  • MUNROEBLUM, H
  • EASTWOOD, R
  • RIFAT, S
  • VERDON, J
  • NAVARRO, J
  • GAUTHIER, S
  • WOLFSON, C
  • BAUMGARTEN, M
  • SKA, B
  • JOANETTE, Y
  • KERGOAT, MJ
  • NAZERALI, N
  • HEBERT, R
  • BRAVO, G
  • DOYON, J
  • BOUCHARD, R
  • MORIN, J
  • GAUVREAU, D
  • BALRAM, C
  • ROCKWOOD, K
  • GRAY, J
  • FISK, J
  • NILSSON, T
  • DONALD, A
  • BUEHLER, S
  • PRYSEPHILLIPS, W
  • KOZMA, A

publication date

  • November 1, 1994