Postexercise protein feeding regulates the skeletal muscle adaptive response to endurance exercise, but the transcriptome guiding these adaptations in well-trained human skeletal muscle is uncharacterized. In a crossover design, eight cyclists ingested beverages containing protein, carbohydrate and fat (PTN: 0.4, 1.2, 0.2 g/kg, respectively) or isocaloric carbohydrate and fat (CON: 1.6, 0.2 g/kg) at 0 and 1 h following 100 min of cycling. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis were collected at 3 and 48 h following to determine the early and late transcriptome and regulatory signaling responses via microarray and immunoblot. The top gene ontology enriched by PTN were: muscle contraction, extracellular matrix - signaling and structure, and nucleoside, nucleotide, and nucleic acid metabolism (3 and 48 h); developmental processes, immunity, and defense (3 h); glycolysis, lipid and fatty acid metabolism (48 h). The transcriptome was also enriched within axonal guidance, actin cytoskeletal, Ca2+, cAMP, MAPK, and PPAR canonical pathways linking protein nutrition to exercise-stimulated signaling regulating extracellular matrix, slow-myofibril, and metabolic gene expression. At 3 h, PTN attenuated AMPKα1Thr172 phosphorylation but increased mTORC1Ser2448, rps6Ser240/244, and 4E-BP1-γ phosphorylation, suggesting increased translation initiation, while at 48 h AMPKα1Thr172 phosphorylation and PPARG and PPARGC1A expression increased, supporting the late metabolic transcriptome, relative to CON. To conclude, protein feeding following endurance exercise affects signaling associated with cell energy status and translation initiation and the transcriptome involved in skeletal muscle development, slow-myofibril remodeling, immunity and defense, and energy metabolism. Further research should determine the time course and posttranscriptional regulation of this transcriptome and the phenotype responding to chronic postexercise protein feeding.