Release of pro-inflammatory mediators during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
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Inflammation has been reported to play an important role in cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass due to systemic endotoxemia. In order to develop strategies against this injury in future we studied the combined effect of a number of inflammatory mediators in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Coronary sinus blood samples of ten patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) were obtained at three time intervals (1) before onset of bypass (2) 30 min after cross clamp, and (3) 10 min after removal of cross clamp. The samples were subjected to evaluate levels of nitric oxide byproducts (nitrite and nitrate and citrulline), inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-2, interferon-gamma and interleukin-6), adhesion molecules, (CD62L and CD54), ratio of cell surface markers (CD4/CD8 and TCRalphabeta/gammadelta) cell activation markers (CD69 and HLA DR) and second messengers (protein kinase C, inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate and intracellular calcium levels). Ischemia and further reperfusion resulted in significant rise in nitrite and nitrate levels (p < 0.001), interleukin-6 (p < 0.01), CD62L (p < 0.001), CD69 (p < 0.05), protein kinase C (p < 0.001) and intracellular calcium (p < 0.001). A fall in CD4/CD8 ratio was observed on reperfusion. These changes during CABG show that ischemia/reperfusion leads to a release of an array of pro-inflammatory mediators of tissue injury, which could lead to pathophysiological changes. Hence the study suggests the need of some protective therapies against these inflammatory markers.
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