Antithrombotic therapy has recently become more frequent for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the paediatric population. This can be explained by the increased awareness of morbidities and mortalities of VTE in children, as well as the improved survival rate of children with various kinds of serious illnesses. Considering the large number of years a child is expected to survive, associated morbidities such as postthrombotic syndrome and risk of recurrence can significantly impact on the quality of life in children. Therefore, timely diagnosis, evidence-based treatment and prophylaxis strategies are critical to avoid such complications.
This review summarizes the current literature about the antithrombotic treatment for VTE in infants and children. It guides the paediatric medical care provider for making a logical and justifiable decision.