Plasma Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 Is Associated With Acute Kidney Injury and Death After Cardiac Operations
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BACKGROUND: Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1; chemokine C-C ligand-2 [CCL-2]) is upregulated in ischemia-reperfusion injury and is a promising biomarker of inflammation in cardiac operations. METHODS: We measured preoperative and postoperative plasma MCP-1 levels in adults undergoing cardiac operations to evaluate the association of perioperative MCP-1 levels with acute kidney injury (AKI) and death in Translational Research Investigating Biomarker Endpoints in AKI (TRIBE-AKI), a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort. RESULTS: Of the 972 participants in the study, AKI developed in 329 (34%), and severe AKI developed in 45 (5%). During a median follow-up of 2.9 years (interquartile range, 2.2 to 3.5 years), 119 participants (12%) died. MCP-1 levels were significantly higher in those who developed AKI and died than in those without AKI and death. Participants with a preoperative MCP-1 level in the highest tertile (>196 pg/mL) had an increased AKI risk than those in the lowest tertile (<147 pg/mL; odds ratio [OR], 1.43l; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 2.05). The association appeared similar but was not significant for the severe AKI outcome (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.62 to 3.54). Compared with participants with preoperative MCP-1 level in the lowest tertile, those in the highest tertile had higher adjusted risk of death (hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.40 to 2.38). Similarly, participants in the highest tertile had a higher adjusted risk of death (hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.09-3.49) than those with a postoperative MCP-1 level in the lowest tertile. CONCLUSIONS: Higher plasma MCP-1 is associated with increased AKI and risk of death after cardiac operations. MCP-1 could be used as a biomarker to identify high-risk patients for potential AKI prevention strategies in the setting of cardiac operations.
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