Single-stage repair for multiple muscular septal defects: a single-centre experience across 16 years
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OBJECTIVES: Multiple muscular ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are surgically challenging and its management remains controversial. We present a technique of surgical repair for muscular VSDs, which includes surgical exposure and detection of these defects and has excellent clinical outcomes. METHODS: We have analysed consecutive patients who underwent surgical repair of isolated multiple muscular VSDs under cardiopulmonary bypass over a 16-year period (from January 2001 to November 2016) in a single centre from the southern part of India. These defects were accessed through the right atrium in most cases and closed directly; completeness of closure was confirmed by pressurizing the left ventricle with blood cardioplegia. There were no haemodynamically significant residual VSDs following repair. RESULTS: One hundred and two patients with an average time of follow-up of 4.1 years (1 month-12 years) were included. The mean age of our patients at the time of operation was 23.5 months (3 months-22 years) with a mean weight of 7.9 kg (2-55 kg). The mean cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp time was 118.8 ± 39.2 min (mean ± SD) and 76.5 ± 29.4 min (mean ± SD), respectively. There were 10 (9.8%) hospital deaths and 3 late deaths in the entire study group. Permanent pacemaker was implanted in 2 patients. Seventy patients could be followed up after discharge. Postoperative pulmonary artery pressure was normal in 52% of the patients, mild-to-moderate hypertension in 27% and severe in 7% of the patients. The ejection fraction was >60% among the survivors, and there were no reoperations or reinterventions. CONCLUSIONS: This surgical approach to multiple muscular VSDs is safe and effective with minimal risk of complete heart block and diminution of ventricular function.
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