Mycobacterium xenopiInfection in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
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Mycobacterium xenopi is one of the most frequently isolated nontuberculous mycobacteria in Ontario, Canada. We reviewed the records of 28 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients from whom M. xenopi was isolated between 1982 and 1995. M. xenopi was recovered from respiratory specimens from 24 patients, most of whom had clinical and radiographic evidence of pulmonary disease. However, coexistent pulmonary infection due to other pathogens was found in 17 patients: Pneumocystis carinii (9 patients), cytomegalovirus (5), Haemophilus influenzae (2), Mycobacterium avium complex (2), Streptococcus pneumoniae (1), Staphylococcus aureus (1), Aspergillus species (1), and Histoplasma capsulatum (1). Three patients had bacteremia with M. xenopi, including two patients with pulmonary infection. Two of the bacteremic patients had chronic fever and a wasting syndrome. Twenty-one (75%) of the 28 patients were thought to be colonized, and seven patients (25%; of whom four had CD4 cell counts of < or = 50/mm3) were thought to have significant infection due to M. xenopi. Sixteen patients died, but in no case was death attributable to M. xenopi infection. In a region where M. xenopi is a relatively common mycobacterial isolate, the organism frequently colonizes HIV-infected patients. Significant disease occurs in those patients with more advanced HIV infection.
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