The paper presents observed damage in reinforced concrete buildings during the 27 February 2010 Maule earthquake in Chile. Performance of concrete frame and shear wall buildings are discussed with emphasis on seismic deficiencies in design and construction practices. It is shown that the majority of structural damage in multistorey and high-rise buildings can be attributed to poor performance of slender shear walls, without confined boundary elements, suffering from crushing of concrete and buckling of vertical wall reinforcement. Use of irregular buildings, lack of seismic detailing, and the interference of nonstructural elements were commonly observed seismic deficiencies. A comparison is made between Chilean and Canadian design practices with references made to the applicable code clauses. Lessons are drawn from the observed structural performance.