Alcohol Consumption and Endometrial Cancer: Some Unresolved Issues
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The role of hormonal factors, in particular unopposed estrogens, on endometrial cancer occurrence is well established. Progesterone deficiency has also been suggested as a possible risk factor. Alcohol use has been shown to be associated with elevated estrogen levels and reduced progesterone. Epidemiologic studies, however, have not offered much support for a positive association between alcohol intake and endometrial cancer, with results generally indicating no association or suggesting an inverse relationship with endometrial cancer. However, certain methodologic limitations, such as small sample size, limited range of alcohol intake, and confounding may have explained those findings. Moreover, there are some unexplored aspects of the possible effect of alcohol, such as the possible interaction with use of exogenous estrogens, and other factors, that need clarification.
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