Factors associated with inflammation markers, a cross-sectional analysis
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Epidemiological studies have reported associations between circulating inflammation markers and risk of chronic diseases. It is of interest to examine whether risk factors for these diseases are associated with inflammation. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to evaluate whether reproductive and lifestyle factors and circulating vitamin D were associated with inflammation markers, including C-reactive protein, cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNFα), and cytokine modulators (IL-1RA, sIL-1RII, sIL-2Ra, sIL-4R, sIL-6R, sTNF-R1/R2), among 616 healthy women. We confirmed associations of several inflammation markers with age and BMI. We also observed significantly higher levels of certain inflammation markers in postmenopausal vs. premenopausal women (TNFα, sIL-1RII, sIL-2Ra), with increasing parity (IL-12p40), and with higher circulating 25(OH) vitamin D (IL-13) and lower levels among current users of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12p70, and IL-12p40), current smokers (IL-4, IL-13, IL-12p40), and women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13). Our findings suggest that risk factors for chronic diseases (age, BMI, menopausal status, parity, NSAID use, family history of breast and ovarian cancer, and smoking) are associated with inflammation markers in healthy women.