Specific fatty acids may have differential effects on breast cancer etiology. Animal studies have suggested that conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), a group of fatty acids found predominantly in dairy products and the meat of ruminants, have potent anticarcinogenic properties. We examined breast cancer risk and dietary CLA intake among 1,122 women with primary, incident, histologically confirmed breast cancer and 2,036 controls frequency matched to cases by age, race, and county of residence. Diet was assessed with a self-administered 104-item food frequency questionnaire and other relevant data were collected by detailed in-person interviews. We examined risk with intake of total CLAs and the 9c,11t-18:2 isomer of CLA (9,11 CLA). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, the residual of fat adjusted for energy, and other breast cancer risk factors. No association was observed between intakes of total CLA or 9,11 CLA and overall risk of premenopausal or postmenopausal breast cancer. We observed little association between CLA intakes and risk of estrogen receptor (ER)–negative or ER-positive tumors, although, compared with premenopausal women in the lowest quartile of 9,11 CLA intake, those in the highest quartile had a marginally significant reduction in risk of having an ER-negative tumor (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.16–1.01). Our findings suggest that, although CLA intake was not related to overall breast cancer risk, there may be associations with tumor biology at least among premenopausal women.