Comparison of infectious complications during induction/consolidation chemotherapy versus allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
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Induction/consolidation chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for hematological malignancies are associated with treatment-related risks such as infections. The predominant types of infections are blood stream infections (BSIs) and respiratory tract infections. We prospectively compared infectious complications after induction/consolidation chemotherapy versus allogeneic HSCT in a directly comparable setting with both groups being hospitalized on the same ward. From July 2003 until June 2008, 492 hospitalizations of 321 patients took place; 237 chemotherapies and 255 HSCTs were performed. We observed 49 (20.7%) BSIs, 70 (29.5%) pneumonias and 11 (4.6%) probable or proven invasive mould infections in the chemotherapy group. In the HSCT group we detected 70 (27.5%) BSIs, 71 (27.8%) pneumonias and 14 (5.4%) probable or proven invasive mould infections. There was a trend toward more transfers to the intensive care unit (OR 1.61; 95%CI 0.95-2.72; P=0.074) and BSIs (OR 1.45; 95%CI 0.95-2.22; P=0.079) after HSCT; 44 (13.7%) patients died. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the HSCT group (OR 2.39; 95%CI 1.22-4.68; P=0.010). We conclude that the risk of pneumonia and invasive mould infection is comparable after induction/consolidation chemotherapy and allogeneic HSCT. However, there was a trend for more BSIs and intensive care unit stays and a higher mortality in the latter.
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