Helicobacter pyloriand gastroesophageal reflux disease: a review of this intriguing relationship
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A possible association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been the subject of study and debate in recent years. This review discusses the pathophysiological and immunological mechanisms implicated in this relationship. Although gastric secretion in the majority of H. pylori-infected individuals is unaltered, this review considers how the bacteria may interfere with gastric acid production and what role it may play in GERD. We also identify the epidemiological evidence that confirms that GERD develops after the infection has been eradicated. Lastly, we clarify how the host's immune response and bacterial virulence factors interfere with this relationship, explaining the highly conflicting results in the literature.
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