Assessment of Left Ventricular Systolic Function Using Echocardiography in Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction and Elevated Diastolic Pressures
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There is controversy regarding the nature of systolic function in patients with elevated filling pressure and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. In this study, tissue Doppler variables and 2-dimensional echocardiographic systolic strain (SS) and systolic strain rate (SSr) were measured in patients who underwent cardiac catheterization to determine correlations with invasively measured LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), dP/dt, and LV mass. Forty patients were studied. Their mean age was 55.9+/-9.9 years, and their mean LV ejection fraction was 59.8+/-5.2%. Tissue Doppler systolic annular velocity (5.4+/-1.1 vs 6.4+/-1.0 cm/s, p=0.04), SS (13.4+/-3.7% vs 18.8+/-2.3%, p <0.001), and SSr (0.73+/-0.17 vs 0.98+/-0.14 s(-1), p <0.001) were significantly lower in patients with LVEDP >20 mm Hg compared with those with LVEDP <20 mm Hg. Tissue Doppler systolic velocity, SSr, and SS were correlated with LV mass (R=0.58, R=0.57, and R=0.52, respectively, all p values <0.001) and with LVEDP (R=0.49, p=0.002; R=0.79, p<0.001; and R=0.70, p<0.001, respectively). However, dP/dt was not significantly different between patients with LVEDP >20 mm Hg and those with LVEDP <20 mm Hg (1,387+/-520 vs 1,495+/-594 mm Hg/s, respectively, p=0.55) and was not correlated with LV mass (R=0.18, p=0.25). The optimum cut-off values for LVEDP >20 mm Hg were SSr <0.85 s(-1) (area under the curve 0.88, p<0.001, positive predictive value 89%, negative predictive value 86%) and SS<16% (area under the curve 0.84, p=0.002, positive predictive value 88%, negative predictive value 79%). In conclusion, as opposed to invasively measured dP/dt, tissue Doppler systolic velocity and 2-dimensional echocardiographic SS and SSr are significantly depressed in patients with preserved LV ejection fraction and LVEDP >20 mm Hg, suggesting that systolic abnormalities are present in at least some of these patients. These differences are likely because invasively measured dP/dt and these echocardiographic variables measure different systolic properties in patients with preserved LV ejection fraction.
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