Correlates of Dysphoria in Canadian Seniors: The Canadian Study of Health and Aging
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OBJECTIVE: To examine the correlates of dysphoria in elderly Canadians. METHOD: Randomly sampled elderly underwent screening in 1992 (CSHA-1) and in 1997 (CSHA-2). Community-living subjects without dementia at CSHA-1 were re-interviewed at CSHA-2 (n = 5234). A score < 53 on the mental health component of the Medical Outcomes Study Questionnaire (SF-36) was used to measure dysphoria. Sociodemographic, functional, social support, disease and lifestyle correlates of dysphoria were examined. RESULTS: 4.76% of men, and 8.59% of women were classified as dysphoric. The occurrence declined with age. In multivariate analyses, chronic pain, poor self-rated health, functional dependency and, in men only, being married, were significantly related to dysphoria. Perceived social support remained significant after controlling for sociodemographic, functional and disease variables. CONCLUSION: Dysphoria is common among the elderly, especially elderly women. Given the interrelationships and number of correlates of dysphoria, elderly Canadians require broad programs promoting health and social support as well as functional and economic independence.