Management of hypophosphatemia in nocturnal hemodialysis with phosphate-containing enema: A technical study
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Hypophosphatemia is observed in patients undergoing nocturnal hemodialysis. Phosphate is commonly added to the dialysate acid bath, but systematic evaluation of the safety and reliability of this strategy is lacking. The objectives of this study were 4-fold. First, we determined whether predictable final dialysate phosphate concentrations could be achieved by adding varying amounts of Fleet® enema. Second, we assessed the stability of calcium (Ca) and phosphate dialysate levels under simulated nocturnal hemodialysis conditions. Third, we assessed for Ca-phosphate precipitate. Finally, we evaluated whether dialysate containing Fleet® enema met the current sterility standards. We added serial aliquots of enema to 4.5 L of dialysate acid concentrate and proportioned the solution on Gambro and Althin/Baxter dialysis machines for up to 8 hours. We measured dialysate phosphate, Ca, pH, and bicarbonate concentrations at baseline, and after simulated dialysis at 4 and 8 hours. We evaluated for precipitation visually and by assessing optical density at 620 nm. We used inoculation of agar to detect bacteria and Pyrotell reaction for endotoxin. For every 30 mL of Fleet® (1.38 mmol/mL of phosphate) enema added, the dialysate phosphate concentration increased by 0.2 mmol/L. There were no significant changes in dialysate phosphate, Ca, pH, and bicarbonate concentrations over 8 hours. No precipitate was observed in the dialysate by optical density measures at 620 nm for additions of up to 90 mL of enema. Bacterial and endotoxin testing met sterility standards. The addition of Fleet® enema to dialysate increases phosphate concentration in a predictable manner, and no safety problems were observed in our in vitro studies.
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