Pharmacology of intra-articular triamcinolone
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INTRODUCTION: The inflammatory joint diseases of juvenile inflammatory arthritis (JIA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA): and also mild to moderate joint injury, all require a multidisciplinary approach to management. Intra-articular injections of corticosteroids have been shown to be a very beneficial adjunctive treatment in the management of the above disorders. It is, therefore, important that clinicians have a good understanding of the clinical actions of intra-articular injections. OBJECTIVE: This article explores the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical pharmacology of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and triamcinolone hexacetonide (TH) in JIA, RA, and OA. METHODS: Literature search of TA and TH articles was conducted using key word searches in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases and through references within found articles. RESULTS: TA and TH intra-articular injections have been shown to provide good clinical benefit for up to 6 months and even longer. TH has been shown to decrease in the expression of citrullinated proteins, the monoclonal antibody F95, and peptidylarginine deiminase 4 in RA synovium. TA and TH intra-articular injections have a low side effect profile which is similar to other corticosteroid. They have minimal to no mineralocorticoid adverse effects and facial flushing 2-3 days post injections is the most common side effect recorded, and in almost all cases is no worse than nuisance. CONCLUSION: TA and TH are useful adjunct therapies in the management of JIA, RA, OA, and mild to moderate joint injury.
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