Cigarette smoking and the outcomes of in vitro fertilization: measurement of effect size and levels of action
- Additional Document Info
- View All
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether cigarette smoking in women or men affects the outcomes of IVF-ET and at what functional levels smoking is active. INTERVENTIONS: Demographic and smoking data were collected by questionnaire at the onset of consecutive treatment cycles (n = 462) and at the time of ET. In addition to routine endocrine and clinical data, circulating immunoreactive inhibin, follicular fluid E2 endometrial thickness, and morphology were assessed. Reported exposure to cigarettes was validated using a serum cotinine assay. RESULTS: Serum cotinine level at the onset of treatment correlated strongly with the number of cigarettes reported (r = 0.68). The duration and dose of gonadotropin treatment was greater among active smokers than never smokers: 10.2 versus 9.2 days and 24.7 versus 19.8 ampules, respectively. Fertilization, pregnancy, and abortion rates were similar between groups. Multivariate analyses demonstrated negative correlation between female age, but no such effect was seen with female or male smoking. Sperm concentration was significantly reduced in male smokers (prewash: 108 versus 130 x 10(6); postwash: 17.1 versus 21.6 x 10(6)), although fertilization rate was unaffected (66% versus 62%). Follicular function, assessed using serum inhibin and E2, as well as follicular fluid E2 levels showed no significant difference between active smokers and never smokers. Endometrial thickness and morphology also were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that among couples undergoing IVF neither female nor male smoking has a measurable deleterious effect on conception rate. Female age remains a far more potent prognostic factor in the current study. However, when all the published data are combined, a significant deleterious effect of smoking on conception is suggested, with a common odds ratio of 0.540 (95% confidence interval 0.385 to 0.757).
has subject area