The Effects of Lysophosphatidate on Thyrotropin-Mediated Differentiated Thyroid Function in FRTL-5 Thyroid Cells
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Lysophosphatidate (LPA; 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate) is a novel lipid mediator with diverse biological activity. The intracellular mechanisms that mediate the actions of LPA include activation of phospholipase C and protein kinase C (PKC), increases in intracellular Ca2+, inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, and activation of phospholipase D (PLD). We have shown that thyrotropin (TSH) mediated PLD activation involves both the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and PKC pathways. We determined the effects of LPA (10 or 50 microM; 30 minutes) on TSH- and forskolin-mediated cAMP production in FRTL-5 thyroid cells. Basal cAMP was unaffected by LPA. However, both 10 microM and 50 microM LPA inhibited TSH-mediated cAMP production by 66% and 64%, respectively (p < 0.01, ANOVA). A similar inhibition of forskolin-mediated cAMP production was observed following LPA (p < 0.01, ANOVA). After 30-minutes exposure to 50 microM LPA, TSH-mediated iodide uptake (IU) was unaffected. However, 50 microM LPA enhanced TSH-IU after 24-hour exposure by 23%+/-8% (p < 0.03, ANOVA) and inhibited TSH-IU following 72-hour exposure by 43%+/-10% (p < 0.02, ANOVA). There was no effect of LPA on basal IU. To determine whether PLD activation mediated the effects of LPA, PLD activity was examined in FRTL-5 thyroid cells 30 minutes after LPA exposure. While PLD was increased 3.5-fold compared to control values following 50 microM LPA (p < 0.05, ANOVA), no increase in PLD activation was seen following treatment with 10 microM LPA. Preliminary evidence revealed no effect of a protein kinase C inhibitor on LPA inhibition of cAMP generation. To examine the products of PLD activation, we measured the production of phosphatidate (PA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) in FRTL-5 thyroid cells following treatment with 50 microM LPA or 100 microU/mL TSH. Within 1 minute following LPA, a rapid spike of DAG production was observed (1.5- +/- 0.2-fold above basal, p < 0.05, ANOVA). No similar increases in PA or bisPA were demonstrated. However, TSH caused a steady increase in PA and DAG that reached a maximum after 30 minutes. In summary, the effects of LPA on differentiated thyroid function in FRTL-5 thyroid cells are complex. LPA inhibits TSH- and forskolin-mediated cAMP generation most likely via a direct inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, whereas its effects on TSH-IU involve other mechanisms, possibly including PLD activation.
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