Standardized Intracardiac Measurements of Two-Dimensional Echocardiography
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Thirty-five healthy adults were studied by two-dimensional echocardiography to attempt to standardize a simple method for measurement of intracardiac dimensions. Both ventricles and the atria and aorta were measured in five different views: parasternal long-axis, parasternal short-axis at the level of the aortic valve, the chordae tendineae and the papillary muscles and an apical four chamber view. The minor axis of each chamber was measured in all five views; the major axis in the apical four chamber view also was measured. All measurements are presented as a range of values (mean and 2 standard deviations about the mean); the mean value is given as well as the absolute range of values measured. Normalization according to body surface area is also presented. Data from these multiple views allow assessment of asymmetry of cardiac chambers in normal subjects. The mean minor axis dimension at end-diastole of the right ventricle in the parasternal long-axis view (1.9 to 3.8 cm) was 13.6% smaller than in the four chamber view (2.2 to 4.4 cm), whereas the minor axis dimension of the left ventricle in the parasternal long-axis view (3.5 to 6.0 cm) was only 1.1% larger than in the four chamber view (3.3 to 6.0 cm). Therefore, the right ventricular minor axis dimensions are not interchangeable. Reproducibility in 10 subjects for all dimensions showed a maximal variability of 4.8%. These values permit a standardized and expeditious method for measuring intracardiac dimensions by two-dimensional echocardiography.
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