Prospective Multicenter Study of Pregnancy Outcomes in Women With Heart Disease
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BACKGROUND: The maternal and neonatal risks associated with pregnancy in women with heart disease receiving comprehensive prenatal care have not been well defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled 562 consecutive pregnant women with heart disease and determined the outcomes of 599 pregnancies not ending in miscarriage. Pulmonary edema, arrhythmia, stroke, or cardiac death complicated 13% of pregnancies. Prior cardiac events or arrhythmia, poor functional class or cyanosis, left heart obstruction, and left ventricular systolic dysfunction independently predicted maternal cardiac complications; the cardiac event rate can be predicted using a risk index incorporating these predictors. Neonatal complications (20% of pregnancies) were associated with poor functional class or cyanosis, left heart obstruction, anticoagulation, smoking, and multiple gestations. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy in women with heart disease is associated with significant cardiac and neonatal complications, despite state-of-the-art obstetric and cardiac care. Maternal cardiac risk can be predicted with the use of a risk index.
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