A total of 287 men (37.6% with symptoms of urethritis) attending a hospital-based sexually transmitted disease clinic had urethral swabs tested by culture and by direct fluorescent-antibody assay. First-void urine (FVU) was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis by commercially available ligase chain reaction (LCR) and PCR assays. By using an expanded reference standard, 35 men (12.2%) were found to be positive. By performing LCR and PCR, the infection prevalence was found to be approximately twice (11.5 and 12.2%, respectively) that determined swab testing. The sensitivity values were 94.3% for LCR and 100% for PCR. One of the two positive specimens missed by LCR contained inhibitors. PCR produced five false-positive results and LCR produced one.