Ring chromosome 22 and autism: Report and review
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Ring chromosome 22 has been described in over 50 cases. A characteristic phenotype has not been fully delineated; however, long face, thick eyebrows, 2-3 toe syndactyly, mental retardation, adequate somatic growth and the absence of major malformations are noted in many cases. An 11-year-old boy with ring chromosome 22 and 46,XY,r(22)(p11.31-q13.31 approximately q13.33) karyotype presented with global developmental delay, autistic disorder, and dolichocephaly, apparently low-set and large ears, midface hypoplasia, and 2-3 toe syndactyly. This is the second report of a ring chromosome 22 with autistic disorder. There appears to be an association between abnormalities of chromosome 22, including r(22), and autistic disorder; however, this occurrence may be a result of the association of autistic disorder with mental retardation rather than specifically due to r(22). The physical findings in this case also suggest that ring chromosome 22 causes a subtle but distinct phenotype which has previously been proposed.
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