A novel synergistic effect of alanosine and guanine on adenine nucleotide synthesis in mammalian cells. Alanosine as a useful probe for investigating purine nucleotide metabolism
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A novel synergistic effect of the antitumor agent alanosine (2-amino-3-(hydroxynitrosoamino) propionic acid), which specifically inhibits the enzyme adenylosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and guanine on the growth of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) has been observed. In the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of alanosine, both CHO cells and the HDF show excessive sensitivity to exogenous guanine--a phenotype which closely resembles that seen with some of the mutants containing reduced enzymatic activity of ASS. The growth inhibitory effects of alanosine, or alanosine and guanine, on CHO cells are completely reverted by the addition of adenine to the culture medium, and the synergistic effect of guanine is not observed in mutants which lack the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase. These resuls suggest that guanine nucleotides exert a regulatory effect on the activity of the enzyme adenylosuccinate synthetase. The ability to confer the guanine-sensitive phenotype and its modulation by subinhibitory concentrations of alanosine in different cell types indicates that alanosine provides a useful probe for investigating the regulation of purine nucleotide metabolism in mammalian cells.
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