Selective effects of dietary fats on vascular 13-hode synthesis and platelet/vessel wall interactions
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Fish oil (FO) diets are associated with decreased thrombosis, which is though to be related, in part, to changes in platelet and vessel wall prostanoid synthesis. Recently, we found that 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) synthesized in the vessel wall from linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6) via the lipoxygenase pathway, also decreases platelet/vessel wall interactions. Thus, we determined whether diets containing fish oil, walnut oil (rich in linoleic acid), black currant seed oil (rich in both linoleic and gamma linolenic acids, 18:3 n-6), or lard influenced vessel wall 13-HODE synthesis and platelet/vessel wall adhesion in rabbits. In vivo, vessel wall thrombogenicity was decreased in animals fed the black currant seed oil rich diet for 4 weeks as compared to the control "LARD" diet. This latter effect was better obtained when gamma linoleic acid was present suggesting a secondary effect of this fatty acid. The decreased vessel wall thrombogenicity in those animals, was associated with increased vessel wall 13-HODE synthesis. In contrast, ex vivo platelet adhesivity was significantly decreased in the fish oil diet fed animals, as compared to the control "LARD" diet and correlated with decreased platelet 12-HETE synthesis. We conclude that both fish oil and black currant seed oil rich diets inhibit platelet/vessel wall adhesion; the black current seed oil diet by increasing the availability of linoleic acid for 13-HODE synthesis and inhibiting vessel wall thrombogenicity; the fish oil diet, by inhibiting platelet 12-HETE synthesis and subsequent platelet adhesion.
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