Regulation of endothelial cell and platelet receptor-ligand binding by the 12- and 15-lipoxygenase monohydroxides, 12-, 15-HETE and 13-HODE
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In previous studies, we reported that vascular wall cells such as endothelial cells metabolize linoleic acid to 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) via the 15-lipoxygenase pathway. Endothelial cell 13-HODE levels vary inversely with endothelial cell reactivity to platelets, which, in turn, varies directly with the expression of the vitronectin receptor (VnR) on the apical surface of endothelial cells. We and others have also found that tumour cell adhesivity is dependent, in part, upon the relative amounts of intracellular 13-HODE and the arachidonic acid monohydroxide(s), 12- and/or 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (12-, 15-HETE). In addition, we and others have found that platelet adhesivity is dependent upon the intraplatelet level of its major lipoxygenase metabolite, 12-HETE. Finally, we have demonstrated that 13-HODE and VnR co-localize in nonadhesive endothelial cells but dissociate following endothelial cell injury, at which time, the VnR relocates on the endothelial cell apical surface. These data suggest to us that lipoxygenase-derived monohydroxides regulate the ability of various receptors to recognize their specific ligands. The latter data also suggest that these monohydroxides act directly by a physiochemical mechanism. The present study supports this possibility. Thus, we demonstrate that 13-HODE downregulates VnR binding with vitronectin (Vn) > fibronectin (Fn) > fibrinogen (Fgn), whereas 12- and 15-HETE upregulate specific VnR/ligand binding, using purified VnR/liposomes and purified ligands in an adhesion assay; and that 12- and 15-HETE upregulate GPIIb/IIIa:liposome binding of Fgn > Fn > Vn. We conclude that cell-specific monohydroxides influence cell-specific receptor-ligand binding directly through a physiochemical mechanism.
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