Hypomagnesemia associated with chemotherapy in patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: possible mechanisms.
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Body weight, height and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) were measured in 40 children (27 male, 13 female, aged 0.3-17.0 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at diagnosis and 6 months after initiation of chemotherapy, and in 40 age- and sex-matched local healthy children. Serum and urinary biochemical indices of mineral metabolism were measured in the children with ALL at both time points. From diagnosis to 6 months, a reduction in the fractional excretion of magnesium was found. Serum osteocalcin was low at diagnosis and increased during chemotherapy, whereas 24-h urinary type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide was unchanged. The Z-scores for lumbar spine BMD increased and were correlated with the serum osteocalcin at 6 months. The change in serum magnesium was correlated negatively with the change in lumbar spine BMD, and with the lumbar spine BMD Z-score at 6 months. After initiation of treatment for ALL, rapid recovery in bone formation, which results in the movement of extracellular magnesium into the skeleton through bone formation, may be an important contributor to hypomagnesemia.
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