Role of Phospholipid Scramblase 3 in the Regulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Induced Apoptosis
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In tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced apoptosis, tBid is targeted to mitochondria and causes cytochrome c release. We investigated the regulation of tBid-induced cytochrome c release and apoptosis by phospholipid scramblase 3 (PLS3). Overexpression of PLS3 enhanced, whereas downregulation of PLS3 delayed, TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis and targeting of tBid to mitochondria. On the basis of the theory that tBid targets mitochondrial cardiolipin, we hypothesize that PLS3 enhances translocation of cardiolipin to the mitochondrial surface to facilitate tBid targeting. NAO, a cardiolipin binding dye, was first used to quantify the distribution of cardiolipin. Overexpression of PLS3 increases, whereas downregulation of PLS3 decreases, the percentage of cardiolipin on the mitochondrial surface. Determination of the tBid binding capacity on the mitochondrial surface by FITC-labeled tBid(G94E) also confirmed that tBid binding capacity increased upon PLS3 overexpression and decreased with downregulation of PLS3. PLS3 activity, determined by a lipid flip-flop assay, was activated by calcium and tBid but inhibited by Bcl-2. Mutation of the calcium binding motif abolishes the lipid flip-flop activity of PLS3. PLS3 and tBid may form a bidirectional positive feedback loop that is antagonized by Bcl-2. Overexpression of PLS3 does not affect mitochondrial potential but does interfere with mitochondrial respiration and production of reactive oxygen species. These studies thus establish PLS3 as an important downstream effector of Bcl-2 and tBid in apoptosis.