This study investigated whether increased provision of oxidative substrate would reduce the reliance on nonoxidative ATP production and/or increase power output during maximal sprint exercise. The provision of oxidative substrate was increased at the onset of exercise by the infusion of acetate (AC; increased resting acetylcarnitine) or dichloroacetate [DCA; increased acetylcarnitine and greater activation of pyruvate dehydrogeanse (PDH- a)]. Subjects performed 10 s of maximal cycling on an isokinetic ergometer on three occasions after either DCA, AC, or saline (Con) infusion. Resting PDH- a with DCA was increased significantly over AC and Con trials (3.58 ± 0.4 vs. 0.52 ± 0.1 and 0.74 ± 0.1 mmol ⋅ kg wet muscle−1 ⋅ min−1). DCA and AC significantly increased resting acetyl-CoA (35.2 ± 4.4 and 22.7 ± 2.9 vs. 10.2 ± 1.3 μmol/kg dry muscle) and acetylcarnitine (12.9 ± 1.4 and 11.0 ± 1.0 vs. 3.3 ± 0.6 mmol/kg dry muscle) over Con. Resting contents of phosphocreatine, lactate, ATP, and glycolytic intermediates were not different among trials. Average power output and total work done were not different among the three 10-s sprint trials. Postexercise, PDH- a in AC and Con trials had increased significantly but was still significantly lower than in DCA trial. Acetyl-CoA did not increase in any trial, whereas acetylcarnitine increased significantly only in DCA. Exercise caused identical decreases in ATP and phosphocreatine and identical increases in lactate, pyruvate, and glycolytic intermediates in all trials. These data suggest that there is an inability to utilize extra oxidative substrate (from either stored acetylcarnitine or increased PDH- a) during exercise at this intensity, possibly because of O2 and/or metabolic limitations.