Elevated n-3 fatty acids in a high-fat diet attenuate the increase in PDH kinase activity but not PDH activity in human skeletal muscle
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We tested the hypothesis that a high-fat diet (75% fat; 5% carbohydrates; 20% protein), for which 15% of the fat content was substituted with n-3 fatty acids, would not exhibit the diet-induced increase in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) activity, which is normally observed in human skeletal muscle. The fat content was the same in both the regular high-fat diet (HF) and in the n-3-substituted diet (N3). PDK activity increased after both high-fat diets, but the increase was attenuated after the N3 diet (0.051 +/- 0.007 and 0.218 +/- 0.047 min(-1) for pre- and post-HF, respectively; vs. 0.073 +/- 0.016 and 0.133 +/- 0.032 min(-1) for pre- and post-N3, respectively). However, the active form of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHa) activity decreased to a similar extent in both conditions (0.93 +/- 0.17 and 0.43 +/- 0.09 mmol/kg wet wt pre- and post-HF; vs. 0.87 +/- 0.19 and 0.39 +/- 0.05 mmol/kg wet wt pre- and post-N3, respectively). This suggested that the difference in PDK activity did not affect PDHa activation in the basal state, and it was regulated by intramitochondrial effectors, primarily muscle pyruvate concentration. Muscle glycogen content was consistent throughout the study, before and after both diet conditions, whereas muscle glucose-6-phosphate, glycerol-3-phosphate, lactate, and pyruvate were decreased after the high-fat diets. Plasma triglycerides decreased after both high-fat diets but decreased to a greater extent after the N3, whereas plasma free fatty acids increased after both diets, but to a lesser extent after the N3. In summary, PDK activity is decreased after a high-fat diet that is rich in n-3 fatty acids, although PDHa activity was unaltered. In addition, our data demonstrated that the hypolipidemic effect of n-3 fatty acids occurs earlier (3 days) than previously reported and is evident even when the diet has 75% of its total energy derived from fat.
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