Canine bronchial sustained contraction in Ca2+-free medium: role of intracellular Ca2+
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We evaluated whether cartilage was a source of Ca2+ and the possible role of Ca2+ recycling in the sustained bronchial contraction (SBC) induced by carbachol (Cch) in Ca2+-free medium. Canine first-order bronchi were studied with cartilage and epithelium (+CAR + EPI) and without these structures individually (-CAR + EPI and +CAR - EPI) or together (-CAR - EPI). After cartilage removal (-CAR - EPI or -CAR + EPI) Cch produced a transient contraction in Ca2+-free medium. Removal of the epithelium alone had minor effects on the magnitude of the SBC but increased the effect of removal of cartilage to diminish the SBC. Bronchial strips with cartilage were able to respond to Cch with lower Ca2+ concentrations (10-100 microM) than could dissected preparations. Preincubation with BAY K 8644 (30-1000 nM) or 60 mM KCl or -CAR - EPI tissues converted the transient contractions to Cch in Ca2+-free medium to sustained contractions. In microelectrode studies, 50 nM Cch induced membrane oscillations in solutions with 2.5 mM Ca2+ in bronchial preparations, plus or minus cartilage, and in undissected tissues in Ca2+-free medium but not in -CAR - EPI tissues. Preincubation with 1 microM BAY K 8644 in Ca(2+)-free medium restored these oscillations in -CAR - EPI tissues. The release of 45Ca2+ from cartilage was too rapid to provide a reservoir of Ca2+ to support multiple SBCs in Ca2+-free medium. Moreover, in the Ca2+-free medium (with 10 nM Ca2+ after tissue +CAR + EPI incubation) excitatory junction potentials rapidly disappeared. Addition of 1 microM nifedipine or 1 mM EGTA during the SBC of +CAR + EPI tissues produced complete relaxation. A transient contraction to Cch occurred with prior addition of nifedipine. Inhibition of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump by tissue incubation with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA; 10 microM), or briefly with 1 mM EGTA significantly diminished the SBC induced by Cch in Ca2+-free medium. CPA and EGTA together abolished the Cch-induced SBC. Thus, cartilage plays a more complex role than as a Ca2+ reservoir to support the SBC induced by Cch in Ca2+-free solution; its removal affects the process supporting SBCs involving intracellular Ca2+ storage and Ca2+ entrance through voltage-dependent channels.
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