Mobilization of internal Ca2+ by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in endothelial cells
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The aims of the present study were to establish whether vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) could mobilize internally-stored Ca2+ and whether Ca2+ release could trigger Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space. Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells from an established cell line were loaded with fura-2/AM and cells were studied in suspension or were imaged in monolayers at 40-80% confluency. In Ca2+ imaging studies, VIP evoked Ca2+ transients in Ca2+-free medium containing 50 microM EGTA. This was observed in 33 out of 122 cells examined on 29 separate trials. With each cell, the spread of Ca2+ appeared to occur from the periphery of the cell to the central core. Cells which did not respond to VIP responded to other stimulants such as bradykinin, endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitors, (cyclopiazonic acid and thapsigargin), and endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel opener, ryanodine. The reintroduction of Ca2+ following VIP-induced Ca2+ release did not evoke a Ca2+ response in 5 cells imaged. Cells in suspension showed typical biphasic responses to bradykinin, thapsigargin or cyclopiazonic acid in the presence of external Ca2+. Stimulation with VIP caused transient Ca2+ responses in Ca2+-free physiological saline containing 50 microM EGTA. However, only 1 out of 4 cells tested showed a response to Ca2+ when it was reintroduced to the bathing medium. This study provided direct evidence for the first time in these bovine endothelial cells for VIP-mediated elevation of cytosolic concentration of Ca2+. The results also suggested that other mechanisms might prevail preventing capacitative Ca2+ entry following the release of internally-stored Ca2+.
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