Delineation of key XRCC4/Ligase IV interfaces for targeted disruption of non-homologous end joining DNA repair
- Additional Document Info
- View All
Efficient DNA repair mechanisms frequently limit the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents that act through DNA damaging mechanisms. Consequently, proteins involved in DNA repair have increasingly become attractive targets of high-throughput screening initiatives to identify modulators of these pathways. Disruption of the XRCC4-Ligase IV interaction provides a novel means to efficiently halt repair of mammalian DNA double strand break repair; however; the extreme affinity of these proteins presents a major obstacle for drug discovery. A better understanding of the interaction surfaces is needed to provide a more specific target for inhibitor studies. To clearly define key interface(s) of Ligase IV necessary for interaction with XRCC4, we developed a competitive displacement assay using ESI-MS/MS and determined the minimal inhibitory fragment of the XRCC4-interacting region (XIR) capable of disrupting a complex of XRCC4/XIR. Disruption of a single helix (helix 2) within the helix-loop-helix clamp of Ligase IV was sufficient to displace XIR from a preformed complex. Dose-dependent response curves for the disruption of the complex by either helix 2 or helix-loop-helix fragments revealed that potency of inhibition was greater for the larger helix-loop-helix peptide. Our results suggest a susceptibility to inhibition at the interface of helix 2 and future studies would benefit from targeting this surface of Ligase IV to identify modulators that disrupt its interaction with XRCC4. Furthermore, helix 1 and loop regions of the helix-loop-helix clamp provide secondary target surfaces to identify adjuvant compounds that could be used in combination to more efficiently inhibit XRCC4/Ligase IV complex formation and DNA repair.
has subject area