Interaction among hepatocyte-stimulating factors, interleukin 1, and glucocorticoids for regulation of acute phase plasma proteins in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.
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Human hepatoma (HepG2) cells respond to unfractionated conditioned media of human squamous carcinoma (COLO-16) cells and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes by increasing the synthesis of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, complement C3, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, and fibrinogen, while decreasing the synthesis of albumin. The regulation of the acute phase proteins is mediated by hepatocyte-stimulating factors (HSF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) present in the conditioned medium. Purified HSF-I from COLO-16 cells stimulates preferentially alpha 1-acid glycoprotein synthesis, whereas COLO-HSF-II stimulates preferentially the synthesis of haptoglobin, fibrinogen, and alpha 1-antitrypsin. HSF from monocytes, which has been identified as interferon-beta 2 (B cell stimulating factor-2), displayed the same activity as COLO-HSF-II. Dexamethasone alone had no effect on acute phase plasma protein synthesis but enhanced the response to various HSF severalfold. IL-1 had a relatively low stimulatory activity on the synthesis of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin but strongly reduced the basal expression of fibrinogen. The only synergistic action between IL-1 and HSF (or interferon-beta 2) was noted for the synthesis of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Tumor necrosis factor active on other hepatic cells failed to modulate significantly the expression of any plasma proteins in HepG2 cells. These studies showed that for an optimal HepG2-cell response a combination of HSF (or interferon-beta 2), IL-1, and dexamethasone is needed. This finding might indicate the identity of some of those hormones involved in regulation of the hepatic acute phase response in vivo.
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