- It is often assumed that medical treatment creates a trade-off between good health and income; that is, an individual "pays" for good health by an income loss (at least at the early stages of treatment) compared, for example, with the no-treatment choice. We examined empirical data on hypertensive steelworkers in Canada to evaluate whether such a trade-off exists. We found none. Indeed, those who participated in a treatment program to reduce their blood pressure not only gained improved health but also made small income "gains." Our findings thus challenge the validity of the trade-off assumption and call for further studies of its generalizability.