Alpha1-Antitrypsin was isolated from rabbit plasma by salting out with (NH4)2SO4 followed by ion-exchange chromatography either on DEAE-Sephadex or DEAE-cellulose (each at pH8.8 and 6.5), and affinity chromatography on Sepharose-Cibacron Blue and Sepharose-concanavalin A. The protein thus obtained was homogeneous during crossed immunoelectrophoresis by using an antiserum to whole rabbit plasma, but it migrated as two broad bands when electrophoresed in alkaline polyacrylamide gels. Under optimal loading conditions, two or three subcomponents could be distinguished in each band. The two major forms of rabbit alpha1-antitrypsin, designated components F and S, were separated by preparative polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and some of their physico-chemical properties were established. Both forms reacted with trypsin at a molar ratio of 1:1. Their elution volumes from a Sephadex G-200 column were identical, corresponding to a mol.wt. of 58000; however, some heterogeneity was observed after sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel in a pH 4-6 gradient revealed a multiple-band pattern for each form in the range of pH4.4-4.9. The two forms of rabbit alpha1-antitrypsin possessed the same N-terminal amino acid (glutamic acid) and had very similar amino acid and carbohydrate compositions.