Monocyte chemotactic protein-2, monocyte chemotactic protein-3, and fibroblast-induced cytokine. Three new chemokines induce chemotaxis and activation of basophils.
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Cytokine-dependent mediator release from basophils and mast cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic and inflammatory conditions. Many C-C chemokines have been found to activate basophils and mast cells. We investigated the effect of three newly identified C-C chemokines, monocyte chemotactic protein-2 and -3 (MCP-2, MCP-3) and fibroblast-induced cytokine (FIC) on basophils and mast cells. We found that all three cytokines induced histamine secretion from basophils in a dose-dependent manner. The secretion of histamine was a Ca(2+)-dependent process. MCP-3 was the most potent activator of basophils. MCP-3 and FIC activated basophils from all study subjects, whereas the histamine release by MCP-2 was donor-dependent. The histamine-releasing activity of MCP-2, MCP-3, and FIC was compared with that of MCP-1, RANTES, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha using basophils from 10 donors. MCP-1 was the most potent among all the C-C chemokines. However, MCP-3 was nearly as potent. MCP-2, MCP-3, and FIC induced significant chemotaxis of basophils. None of the cytokines activated mouse peritoneal mast cells. The synthesis of mRNA for MCP-3 was investigated by reverse-transcription PCR using allergen-stimulated PBMC and bronchoalveolar lavage cells. Both MNC and bronchoalveolar lavage cells expressed mRNA for MCP-3. The results of this study indicate that MCP-2, MCP-3, and FIC are novel histamine-releasing factors.
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