- A perennial issue for rural and remote communities in Canada and in other parts of the world is access to a healthcare delivery system including healthcare personnel to provide care to their residents. In total, 18% of Canadians live in rural locations but by proportion have fewer healthcare providers compared with urban settings. Relying on a recently completed documentary analysis of published reports and grey literature on rural and remote nursing practice from Canada and around the world, we recognize that recruitment and retention will be a recurring issue. However, a variety of programs and initiatives have been developed to address this age-old problem. A discussion is provided about educational opportunities, financial incentives and enhanced infrastructure that have been developed to address recruitment and retention challenges. Ongoing evaluations of each of these areas are necessary but require cooperation across provincial and national settings.