Diabetes coaching for individuals with type 2 diabetes: A state-of-the-science review and rationale for a coaching model
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Diabetes coaching is emerging as an important role in self-management and care. The conceptualization of coaching, and how to implement and evaluate coaching has not been articulated in the literature. The aim of the study was to review the literature to: (i) identify the components of coaching using a validated framework, including the description of the role of technology; (ii) describe the implementation and evaluation measures for diabetes coaching; and (iii) propose a diabetes coaching model for future implementation. The EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsychINFO and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched from inception to January 2015. Two evaluators independently screened and extracted data from eligible studies for descriptions of coaching. Eight trials met the selection criteria, with no consistency in the core components of coaching. However, elements noted across all studies included goal setting, diabetes knowledge acquisition, individualized care, and frequent follow-up. Only two studies leveraged technology for coaching communication purposes. Diabetes coaching is an intervention that can support the ongoing and complex needs of patients; however, implementation and evaluation strategies are limited in the literature. A diabetes coaching model is presented, derived from components identified throughout the literature with direction for implementation and evaluation approaches, and optimal integration into the healthcare system.
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