A Comparison of Peripheral Imaging Technologies for Bone and Muscle Quantification: a Mixed Methods Clinical Review
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PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone and muscle peripheral imaging technologies are reviewed for their association with fractures and frailty. A narrative systematized review was conducted for bone and muscle parameters from each imaging technique. In addition, meta-analyses were performed across all bone quality parameters. RECENT FINDINGS: The current body of evidence for bone quality's association with fractures is strong for (high-resolution) peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), with trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and integral volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) reporting consistently large associations with various fracture types across studies. Muscle has recently been linked to fractures and frailty, but the quality of evidence remains weaker from studies of small sample sizes. It is increasingly apparent that musculoskeletal tissues have a complex relationship with interrelated clinical endpoints such as fractures and frailty. Future studies must concurrently address these relationships in order to decipher the relative importance of one causal pathway from another.
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