Genomic Profiling of Iron-Responsive Genes in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium by High-Throughput Screening of a Random Promoter Library
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The importance of iron to bacteria is shown by the presence of numerous iron-scavenging and transport systems and by many genes whose expression is tightly regulated by iron availability. We have taken a global approach to gene expression analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in response to iron by combining efficient, high-throughput methods with sensitive, luminescent reporting of gene expression using a random promoter library. Real-time expression profiles of the library were generated under low- and high-iron conditions to identify iron-regulated promoters, including a number of previously identified genes. Our results indicate that approximately 7% of the genome may be regulated directly or indirectly by iron. Further analysis of these clones using a Fur titration assay revealed three separate classes of genes; two of these classes consist of Fur-regulated genes. A third class was Fur independent and included both negatively and positively iron-responsive genes. These may reflect new iron-dependent regulons. Iron-responsive genes included iron transporters, iron storage and mobility proteins, iron-containing proteins (redox proteins, oxidoreductases, and cytochromes), transcriptional regulators, and the energy transducer tonB. By identifying a wide variety of iron-responsive genes, we extend our understanding of the global effect of iron availability on gene expression in the bacterial cell.
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