Expressions and clinical significance of factors related to giant cell tumor of bone.
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BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a relatively rare tumor of bone, characterized by numerous multinucleated cells, severe osteolysis, and local recurrence. PURPOSE: To explore the role of S-phase kinase-interacting protein 2 (Skp2), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27, and the transcription factor E2F-1 expression in the development of GCTB, and the relationship of expression of these proteins with tumor recurrence. METHODS: Forty-four patients with GCTB were selected and demographic and clinical data were collected. The levels of Skp2, p27, and E2F-1 protein expression were immunohistochemically assessed in surgical specimens. RESULTS: Skp2, p27, and E2F-1 proteins were detected in the nuclei of mononuclear stromal cells. Positive Skp2 expression was observed in 66% (29/44) of GCTB patient samples, and positive p27 expression was found in 39% (17/44) of samples. Within almost all GCTB patients, there was an inverse correlation between Skp2- and p27-positive tumor cells. Positive expression of E2F-1 was present in 28 of 44 (64%) patients. In addition, expression of skp2 and p27, infiltration of soft tissues, and surgical operation were significantly associated with recurrence in patients with GCTB. CONCLUSION: The immunohistochemical assessment of Skp2, p27 and E2F-1 may be useful in the diagnosis of GCTB and prediction of its prognosis.