Inhaled nitric oxide in the neonate
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Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been used to treat both term and preterm infants with respiratory failure. Term infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension, either as a primary cause or secondary to other disease processes, respond to iNO with improvement in oxygenation indices and a decreased need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia are the exception to this finding, with little clinical benefit observed with iNO treatment. Although respiratory disease in preterm infants has a component of increased pulmonary vascular resistance, little benefit of iNO administration has been observed in premature infants either early in their course or later as a treatment to prevent the evolution of chronic lung disease.
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