Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies (GRRAS) were proposed Journal Articles uri icon

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  • OBJECTIVE: Results of reliability and agreement studies are intended to provide information about the amount of error inherent in any diagnosis, score, or measurement. The level of reliability and agreement among users of scales, instruments, or classifications is widely unknown. Therefore, there is a need for rigorously conducted interrater and intrarater reliability and agreement studies. Information about sample selection, study design, and statistical analysis is often incomplete. Because of inadequate reporting, interpretation and synthesis of study results are often difficult. Widely accepted criteria, standards, or guidelines for reporting reliability and agreement in the health care and medical field are lacking. The objective was to develop guidelines for reporting reliability and agreement studies. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Eight experts in reliability and agreement investigation developed guidelines for reporting. RESULTS: Fifteen issues that should be addressed when reliability and agreement are reported are proposed. The issues correspond to the headings usually used in publications. CONCLUSION: The proposed guidelines intend to improve the quality of reporting.


  • Kottner, Jan
  • Audigé, Laurent
  • Brorson, Stig
  • Donner, Allan
  • Gajewski, Byron J
  • Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn
  • Roberts, Chris
  • Shoukri, Mohamed
  • Streiner, David Lloyd

publication date

  • January 2011